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汤姆·武贾克:怎样帮助我们的大脑
标签:思想风暴,中高级,演讲,英语,人体探索
信息设计师汤姆·武贾克讲解大脑帮助我们理解词语的三个部分,图像、感觉和联系。在这个短小的TED里的演讲里,他问到:“我们怎样才能帮助我们的大脑去更好的理解宏大的思维?”

Last year at TED we aimed to try to clarify the overwhelming complexity and richness that we experience at the conference in a project called the Big Viz. And the Big Viz is a collection of 650 sketches that were made by two visual artists. David Sibbet from The Grove, and Kevin Richards from Autodesk made 650 sketches that strive to capture the essence of each presenter's ideas. And the consensus was, it really worked. These sketches brought to life the key ideas, the portraits, the magic moments that we all experienced last year.

This year we were thinking, "Why does it work?" What is it about animation, graphics, illustrations, that create meaning? And this is an important question to ask and answer. Because the more we understand how the brain creates meaning, the better we can communicate. And I also think, the better we can think and collaborate together. So this year we're going to visualize how the brain visualizes.

Cognitive psychologists now tell us that the brain doesn't actually see the world as it is, but instead, creates a series of mental models through a collection of "Ah-ha moments," or moments of discovery, through various processes.

The processing, of course, begins with the eyes. Light enters, hits the back of the retina, and is circulated, most of which is streamed to the very back of the brain, at the primary visual cortex. And primary visual cortex sees just simple geometry, just the simplest of shapes. But it also acts like a kind of relay station that re-radiates and redirects information to many other parts of the brain. As many as 30 other parts that selectively make more sense create more meaning through the kind of "Ah-ha" experiences. We're only gonna talk about three of them.

So the first one is called the ventral stream. It's on this side of the brain. And this is the part of the brain that will recognize what something is. It's the "what" detector. Look at a hand. Look at a remote control, chair, book. So that's the part of the brain that is activated when you give a word to something.

A second part of the brain is called the dorsal stream. And what it does is locates the object in physical body space. So if you look around the stage here you'll create a kind of mental map of the stage. And if you closed your eyes you'd be able to mentally navigate it. You'd be activating the dorsal stream if you did that.

The third part that I'd like to talk about is the limbic system. And this is deep inside of the brain. It's very old, evolutionarily. And it's the part that feels. It's the kind of gut center, where you see an image and you go, "Oh! I have a strong or emotional reaction to whatever I'm seeing."

So the combination of these processing centers helps us make meaning in very different ways. So what can we learn about this? How can we apply this insight? Well, again, the schematic view is that the eye visually interrogates what we look at. The brain processes this in parallel in the figments of information, asking a whole bunch of questions to create a unified mental model.

So, for example, when you look at this image a good graphic invites the eye to dart around, to selectively create a visual logic. So the act of engaging and looking at the image creates the meaning. It's the selective logic. Now we've augmented this and specialized this information. Many of you may remember the magic wall that we built in conjunction with Perceptive Pixel where we'd quite literally create an infinite wall. And so we can compare and contrast the big ideas. So the act of engaging and creating interactive imagery enriches meaning. It activates a different part of the brain. And then the limbic system is activated when we see motion, when we see color. and there are primary shapes and pattern detectors that we've heard about before.

So the point of this is what? We make meaning by seeing, by an act of visual interrogation. The lessons for us are three-fold. First, use images to clarify what we're trying to communicate. Secondly make those images interactive so that we engage much more fully. And the third is to augment memory by creating a visual persistence. These are techniques that can be used to be -- that can be applied in a wide range of problem solving.

So the low-tech version looks like this. And, by the way, this is the way in which we develop and formulate strategy within Autodesk, in some of our organizations and some of our divisions. What we literally do is have the teams draw out the entire strategic plan on one giant wall. And it's very powerful because everyone gets to see everything else. There's always a room, always a place to be able to make sense of all of the components in the strategic plan.

This is a time-lapse view of it. You can ask the question, "Who's the boss?" You'll be able to figure that out. So the act of collectively and collaboratively building the image transforms the collaboration. No PowerPoint is used in two days. But instead the entire team creates a shared mental model that they can all agree on and move forward on.

And this can be enhanced and augmented with some emerging digital technology. And this is our great unveiling for today. And this is an emerging set of technologies that use large-screen displays with intelligent calculation in the background to make the invisible visible. Here what we can do is look at sustainability, quite literally. So a team can actually look at all the key components that heat the structure and make choices and then see the end result that is visualized on this screen.

So making images meaningful has three components. The first again, is making ideas clear by visualizing them. Secondly, making them interactive; and then thirdly, making them persistent. And I believe that these three principles can be applied to solving some of the very tough problems that we face in the world today. Thanks so much.
(Applause)

去年在TED我们试图用一个名为“大视野”的项目来清晰地展示我们在TED大会上感受到的极其复杂和丰富的信息。大视野是由650张草图所组成,这都是由两位视觉艺术家所做的,The Grove的大卫·司比特和Autodesk的凯文·理查兹。他们所做的650张草图都致力于抓住每个演讲者思维的奥义。这成功了。这些草图让这些关键的思维有了生命,这些肖像,这些神奇时刻,都是我们去年所经历过的。

今年我们则在思考“这为什么会成功?”究竟是动画、平面图像、插图的哪些东西创造了含义?不仅提出这个问题是十分重要的,同时回答也是十分重要的。因为我们越是了解大脑怎样创造含义,我们就可以更好地沟通。同时我也认为,这让我们可以更好地在一起思考和合作。所以今年我们来看看,大脑怎样去视觉化。

当代的认知心理学家告诉我们,大脑看到的并不是世界本来的样貌,而是创造了一系列的心智模式。这些模式是通过一系列的“开窍时刻”,或是在各种探索过程中获取的瞬间发现。

这个过程,很显然,是从眼睛开始发生的。光线深入刺激视网膜的后部,然后被分发,大部分是分流到大脑的最后一部分,那就是初级视觉皮层。不过初级视觉皮层感知的是简单的几何型,只是一些简单的几何形状。但是它同时也像一个中转站一样,把信息散布和转到 大脑的不同部位,多达30个其他的区域选择性的创造意义,通过一些“开窍”经验创造更多意义。我们只会讨论其中的三个。

第一个叫做腹面流。它在大脑的这一边,大脑的这个区域将会识别这是什么东西。这是一个“这是什么物体”的探测器,看看手,看看一个遥控器、椅子、书本。所以当你用一个词去描述一个东西的时候,大脑的这个区域将会被激活。

大脑的第二个部分叫做背流。它的功能在实体物理空间里给对象定位。所以如果你看看这个讲台的周围,你会创造一种讲台的心理地图。而且如果你闭上眼睛,你还可以继续在大脑内通过这个地图导航。如果你这样做,你就会激活这个背流。

我将要谈到的第三个部分是关于边缘系统。这个是在大脑的最深处。它十分古老,就进化而言,它是创造感知的那个部位。这就像一个器官中心,当你看到一个图片,然后你觉得“哦!我正在看的东西,给我一个强烈的反映。”

这样结合这些处理中心,就可以帮助我们用不同的方法去创造含义。那么我们可以从中学到什么呢?我们如何运用这些我们所观察到的东西呢?我们再来图解一下:眼睛会询问我们看到了什么。大脑则平行地处理这些虚构的信息,同时问到很多问题,用来创造一个统一的心智模型。

这样,打个比方,当你看到这个图像,一个好的平面图像会邀请眼睛在这四周停留,选择性地去创造一个视觉逻辑。这种参与行为,注视图象的过程产生意义,是一个选择性的逻辑。现在我们已经讨论和分类了这个信息。你们中的许多人也许记得我们建造的魔术墙壁。那是运用了感知像素的,那里我们实际上创造了一堵无限的墙。这样一来我们就可以比较和对比一些庞大的思维。那是用行为和创造互动的影像来丰富含义。这个激活了大脑的不同部分,然后是边缘系统被激活。当我们看到动态,当我们看到颜色的时候,这个初级形状和图案探测器就是我们之前所听过的那个东西。

那么这其中的意义是什么呢?我们通过所见,通过一个视觉询问来创造含义。这给我们的启发是三方面的。第一,用图像来澄清我们所要交流的。第二,让这些图像是互动的,所以我们会尽可能地投入自己的行为。第三点是增强记忆,通过创造一个持续性视觉。这些技术可以被广泛运用在解决各种领域的很多问题上。

所以低端的版本看起来是这样的。还有,顺便说一句,这就是我们怎么样用Autodesk开发和制定计划的。在我们一部分机构和部门里,我们其实就是把所有的组员集合在一堵巨大的墙前来制定工作策略和计划。这十分有用,因为每个人都可以看到每一个部分。这里总有地方,总有一个地方,可以让计划方针里的组成部分产生意义。

这是一个快进的小电影。你可能问到“谁是老板”,你会找出来的。那么集体分工合作的行为建立起了图像,近而转化成合作。在这两天里没有用到幻灯片。但是整个小组,创造了一个分享的心智模型,这个模型都被他们认可而且可以进一步发展。

这个过程可以通过采用新兴点子技术而得到增强和补充。今天我们就要进行盛大的揭幕仪式。这个是一个新兴技术,使用大屏幕,在后台拥有智能计算功能,使不可见的内容视觉化。这里我们可以非常直接地看到连续性。所以一个小组实际上可以看着组成结构的所有关键部分,然后做出决定,再看到最后的结果,所有这一切都被屏幕所视觉化了。

所以赋予图像含义有三个部分。第一,通过视觉化来把想法解释得更清楚。第二,让它们具有互动成分。第三,让它们具有持久性。而且我相信这三个原则可以被运用到解决一些十分困难的问题上面,一些我们现在面临的问题上。十分感谢。(掌声)

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