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克里斯·邦格:汽车的设计艺术
标签:思想风暴,中高级,演讲,英语,汽车,艺术,设计
美国设计师克里斯·邦格解释自己的理念,说汽车设计本身是种艺术形式,充满趣味——这充分体现在宝马公司旨在创造未来SUV的深蓝项目中。

What I want to talk about is, as background, is the idea that cars are art. This is actually quite meaningful to me, because car designers tend to be a little bit low on the totem pole, we don't do coffee table books with just one lamp inside of it, and cars are thought so much as a product that it's a little bit difficult to get into the aesthetic side under the same sort of terminology that one would discuss art. And so cars, as art, brings it into an emotional plane -- if you accept that -- that you have to deal with on the same level you would with art with a capital A.

Now at this point you're going to see a picture of Michelangelo. This is completely different than automobiles. Automobiles are self-moving things, right? Elevators are automobiles. And they're not very emotional, they solve a purpose, and certainly automobiles have been around for 100 years and have made our lives functionally a lot better in many ways, they've also been a real pain in the ass. Because automobiles are really the thing we have to solve. We have to solve the pollution, we have to solve the congestion -- but that's not what interests me in this speech.

What interests me in this speech is cars. Automobiles may be what you use, but cars are what we are, in many ways. And as long as we can solve the problems of automobiles, and I believe we can, with fuel cells or hydrogen, like BMW is really hip on, and lots of other things, then I think we can look past that and try and understand why this hook is in many of us -- of this car-y-ness -- and what that means, what we can learn from it. That's what I want to get to. Cars are not a suit of clothes, cars are an avatar, cars are an expansion of yourself, they take your thoughts, your ideas, your emotions, and they multiply it -- your anger, whatever. It's an avatar. It's a super-waldo that you happen to be inside of, and if you feel sexy, the car is sexy. And if you're full of road rage, you've got a "Chevy: Like a Rock," right?

Cars are a sculpture -- did you know this? That every car you see out there is sculpted by hand. Many people think, "Well, it's computers, and it's done by machines and stuff like that." Well, they reproduce it, but the originals are all done by hand. It's done by men and women who believe a lot in their craft. And they put that same kind of tension into the sculpting of a car that you do in a great sculpture that you would go and look at in a museum. That tension between the need to express, the need to discover, then you put something new into it, and at the same time you have bounds of craftsmanship. Rules that say, this is how you handle surfaces, this is what control is all about, this is how you show you're a master of your craft. And that tension, that discovery, that push for something new -- and at the same time, that sense of obligation to the regards of craftsmanship -- that's as strong in cars as it is in anything. We work in clay, which hasn't changed much since Michelangelo started screwing around with it, and there's a very interesting analogy to that too. Real quickly -- Michelangelo once said he's there to "discover the figure within," OK? There we go, the automobile. That was 100 years right there, did you catch that? Between that one there, and that one there, it changed a lot didn't it? OK, it's not marketing, there's a very interesting car concept here, but the marketing part is not what I want to talk about here. I want to talk about this. Why it means you have to wash a car, what is it, that sensuality you have to touch about it? That's the sculpture that goes into it. That sensuality. And it's done by men and women working just like this, making cars.

Now this little quote about sculpture from Henry Moore, I believe that that "pressure within" that Moore's talking about -- at least when it comes to cars -- comes right back to this idea of the mean. It's that will to live, that need to survive, to express itself, that comes in a car, and takes over people like me. And we tell other people, "Do this, do this, do this," until this thing comes alive. We are completely infected. And beauty can be the result of this infectiousness, it's quite wonderful. This sculpture is, of course, at the heart of all of it, and it's really what puts the craftsmanship into our cars. And it's not a whole lot different, really, when they're working like this, or when somebody works like this. It's that same kind of commitment, that same kind of beauty.

Now, now I get to the point. I want to talk about cars as art. Art, in the Platonic sense, is truth, it's beauty, and love. Now this is really where designers in car business diverge from the engineers. We don't really have a problem talking about love. We don't have a problem talking about truth or beauty in that sense. That's what we're searching for -- when we're working our craft; we are really trying to find that truth out there. We're not trying to find vanity and beauty. We're trying to find the beauty in the truth. However, engineers tend to look at things a little bit more Newtonian, instead of this quantum approach. We're dealing with irrationalisms, and we're dealing with paradoxes that we admit exist, and the engineers tend to look things a little bit more like two and two is four, and if you get 4.0, it's better, and 4.0000 is even better. And that sometimes leads to bit of a divergence in why we're doing what we're doing. We've pretty much accepted the fact, though, that we are the women in the organization at BMW -- BMW is a very manly type business, -- men, men, men, it's engineers. And we're kind of the female side to that. That's OK, that's cool, you go off and be manly, we're going to be a little bit more female, because what we're interested in is finding form that's more than just a function.

We're interested in finding beauty that's more than just an aesthetic, it's really a truth. And I think this idea of soul, as being at the heart of great cars, is very applicable. You all know it. You know a car when you've seen it, with soul. You know how strong this is. Well, this experience of love, and the experience of design, to me, are interchangeable. And now I'm coming to my story.

I discovered something about love and design through a project called Deep Blue. And first of all, you have to go with me for a second, and say, you know, you could take the word love out of a lot of things in our society, put the word design in, and it still works, like this quote here, you know. It kind of works, you know? You can understand that. It works in truisms. "All is fair in design and war." Certainly we live in a competitive society. I think this one here, there's a pop song that really describes Philippe Starck for me, you know, this is like, Toothbrush, cool. It really only gets serious when you look at something like this. OK?
(Laughter)

This is one substitution that I believe all of us, in design management, are guilty of. And this idea that there is more to love, more to design, when it gets down to your neighbor, your other, it can be physical like this, and maybe in the future it will be. But right now it's in dealing with our own people, our own teams who are doing the creating. So, to my story. The idea of people-work is what we work with here, and I have to make a bond with my designers when we're creating BMWs. We have to have a shared intimacy, a shared vision. That means we have to work as one family, we have to understand ourselves that way. There's good times, there's interesting times, and there's some stress times too. You want to do cars; you've got to go outside. You've got to do cars in the rain, you've got to do cars in the snow. That's, by the way, is a presentation we made to our board of directors. We haul their butts out in the snow too. You want to know cars outside? Well, you've got to stand outside to do this. And because these are artists, they have very artistic temperaments. All right? Now one thing about art is, art is discovery, and art is discovering yourself through your art. Right? And one thing about cars is we're all a little bit like Pygmalion, we are completely in love with our own creations. This is one of my favorite paintings, it really describes our relationship with cars. This is sick beyond belief.
(Laughter)

But because of this, the intimacy with which we work together as a team takes on a new dimension, a new meaning. We have a shared center, we have a shared focus, that car stays at the middle of all our relationships. And it's my job, in the competitive process, to narrow this down. I heard today about Joseph's death genes that have to go in and kill cell reproduction. You know, that's what I have to do sometimes. We start out with 10 cars, we narrow it down to five cars, down to three cars, down to two cars, down to one car, and I'm in the middle of that killing, basically. Someone's love, someone's baby. This is very difficult, and you have to have a bond with your team that permits you to do this, because their life is wrapped up in that too. They've got that gene infected in them as well, and they want that to live, more than anything else.

正如投影上所显示的,我想说的是,汽车是艺术这样一种理念。这实际上对我非常有意义,因为汽车设计师往往在艺术界地位有点低。我们不做咖啡桌书籍,那仅有一盏灯在里面,而且汽车总被认为是种产品,这样很难考虑到美学的一面,尤其是使用术语讨论艺术时。但是如果你们认同的话,汽车和艺术一样都存在于情感的层面,所以你得用同样的视角看汽车,就像你看艺术。

现在你们会看到一幅米开朗琪罗(的雕塑)的照片,这和汽车截然不同。汽车就是自己会移动,对吧?那电梯也会自己动。它们都没有情感,它们用作某种用途,当然汽车已经有100年左右的历史了,而且在很多方面使得我们的生活更好。它们也一直带来问题,因为汽车是我们必须要解决的东西,我们得解决污染的问题,解决交通阻塞的问题,但那不是我这次想说的。

我这次想说的是汽车。汽车可能是你们所使用的,但是汽车在很多方面就是我们自己。 只要我们能解决汽车带来的问题,我相信我们能够用燃料电池或氢实现,就像宝马所用的。 还有许多其他的解决办法,我觉得我们能看到问题后面的东西,并尝试理解为什么汽车和人之间存在纽带以及这意味着什么,我们可以从中学到什么,这些就是我将要说的。车不是一套衣服,车是种化身,是你的延伸。车“说出”你的思想,你的灵感,你的感情—并且将其放大——甚至你的愤怒,不管怎样,它是种化身。它是个超级沃尔多,而你恰巧坐在里面。如果你感到性感,这车就很性感。如果你一开车就大发雷霆,你就会选一辆雪弗莱:“就像摇滚”,对吧?

你知道吗?汽车也是雕像。每一辆你看到的车都是手工雕刻的。许多人认为,“嗯,那是电脑做的,是由机器那类的东西完成的。”的确,它们能复制这个过程,但设计最初的车是手工做的,是那些对自己的工作有很强信念的男人女人完成的。他们把相同的迫切感投入到汽车的塑造中,就像在做一件能放进博物馆的伟大的雕塑,在急切表达和急切探索中的迫切感,然后你加入一点新东西;同时你又受到制造工艺的制约规章中写着,你该如何处理车子的表面,这就是设计的核心部分,这就是你如何显示自己是大师的地方。那种迫切感,探索,创新的动力,同时还有对于工艺的责任感,这些在汽车和其他任何东西一样强烈。我们仍用黏土工作,这并没有改变太多,自从米开朗基罗开始使用黏土塑造形象。而且也有非常有趣的相同。就说一句——米开朗基罗说过他在“探寻土中的人物”,对吧?那就是,汽车,那是100年前,你知道吗?从刚才那辆到这辆,汽车变了很多,不是吗?当然这不是销售,这里有个很有趣的汽车的概念,但我在这儿并不想谈论有关市场学的部分,我想说的是这个--为什么你要自己洗车?那是什么,感官上的刺激?你得去触碰它?这就是内在的雕塑性,那感官上的刺激,我们就是这样制造汽车的。

现在这小段话引自亨利·摩尔有关雕塑的话,我相信摩尔所谈论的那个“其中的压力” 至少是提到汽车的时候和这个重要的概念完全一致,那是求生的愿望,生存的需要,表达的欲望,融入在汽车中,使我这样的人着迷。我们告诉其他人,“做这个,做那个,做那个”, 直到这东西诞生,我们完全陷入其中。美丽是这种沉浸其中的结果,这实在太美妙了,这个雕塑,当然,是整个的核心,正是它将手工变为汽车,而且它不是完全不同,真的,当他们这样工作,或当有人这样工作。这是相同的信奉,相同的美丽。

现在我要谈重点了:汽车是种艺术。艺术,在柏拉图派眼中,是真理,美丽和爱。这也是汽车设计师和工程师分歧最大的地方,我们关于爱没有分歧,我们关于真理或美丽的问题没有分歧,这都是我们所寻找的—— 当我们工作时,我们的确试图找出真理,我们不要虚无的美丽,我们在试着寻找真理中的美丽,然而工程师总用“牛顿”的眼光看事情而不是这种量子论的方法。我们在对付不理性,我们在应对的确存在的矛盾,工程师看东西更像……2加2等于4,如果你得到4.0,那更好,4.0000还要好,这样有时就会带来分歧,比如“我们为什么要像现在这么做?”我们坦然接受这个现实,我们是宝马公司中的女人,宝马是个非常男性化的企业,——男人,男人,男人,都是工程师。而我们就是女性的一面。这很好,这很酷,你走出去像个男人,我们则想更像女人。因为我们对寻找功能外的形式有兴趣。

我们对寻找悦目外的美有兴趣,这是真的,而且我认为将这一想法的灵魂深植在伟大汽车的内心是非常适当的。你们都知道,当你看到一辆车的时候,你能从灵魂上知道它有多强,嗯,这种爱的经历,设计的经历对于我来说是可互相交换的。现在我想说说我自己的故事。

在一个叫“深蓝”的项目中,我重新发现了爱和设计。首先,你们要和我一起说,你能将“爱”这个词从我们社会中的许多事物中拿出来,换上设计这个词,完全没问题,就像这句话,它还是对的,是不是?你能明白它们,这话像是老生常谈“在设计和战争中,一切都是公平的。”的确,我们生活在一个高度竞争的社会,我认为这首流行歌曲很好地为我描述了飞利浦·斯塔克,就像你知道的,这就像是初恋,很酷,对吧?牙刷,酷。只有当你这样看东西的时候才会变得严肃,是吧?

这是我相信的一个代入法,我们所有在做设计管理的人,都很内疚。这个理念:有很多需要去爱,很多需要去设计,当它应用于你的邻居身上,其他人身上,它会像这么现实,在未来它可能会这样,但现在这只与我们的团队有关,我们在创新的团队。开始我的故事,与人合作就是我们在这里工作的理念,当我们创造宝马时,我得和我的设计师产生纽带,我们得亲密无间,分享想法,这意味着我们得像一家人一样,我们得这样看这个团队,我们有好日子,有趣的日子,当然也有紧张的日子。你想做汽车你就得到外面去,你得在雨中做,在雪中做。那个,顺便说一下,是我们要向董事会做的展示,我们把它们搬到了室外。你想知道室外的车子吗?那你就得站在外面。因为这些人是艺术家,他们有艺术家的性情,好,现在另一件有关艺术的事情是:艺术是探索,艺术就是在你的艺术作品中探索你自己,不是吗?对于车,我们都有点像皮革马利翁(希腊神),我们彻底地爱上自己的作品,这是我最喜爱的画作之一,它充分描绘了我们和车的关系,这是难以置信的病态。

但因为这个,我们作为团队工作的亲密度,达到出新的高度,新的意义,我们有共同的中心,共同的重点,汽车就是我们的中心。我的工作就是,在竞争的过程中缩小范围。我今天听到约瑟夫的死亡基因会进入细胞并阻止细胞再生,你知道,这也是我有时必须要做的。我们开始做10辆车,减少到5辆,到3辆,到2辆,再到1辆,基本上,我就是在那消减中心。别人的爱人,别人的孩子,这很困难,你得和你的团队有这样的纽带,他们才会同意你这样做,因为他们的生命也在其中,他们体内也有这样的基因,他们想要那个活下去,胜过其他一切。

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